New videos

DIY Rudder Pedals. Part II. Sensors and electronics

DIY Rudder Pedals. Part II. Sensors and electronics

DIY Rudder Pedals. Part I. Pedals making.

DIY Rudder Pedals. Part I. Pedal making.

Double Slip Switch vs. Two Turnouts

How work Double Slip Switches

Installing URB control system to oldest track-plan

DIY Rudder Pedals for Flight Simulator

DIY Rudder Pedals for Flight Simulator

DIY Rudder Pedals for Flight Simulator

Turntable II — Final

Universal model railway turntable. Final episode.

Universal sketch for Turntable II

Programming Arduino sketch for railway turntable

Rotation mechanism

How make the turntable mechanism

Turntable II

Story of turntable design

Example of Passing siding

Wireless Railway Unit

Introduce WRU

New era of URBs


This guy is a complete asshole :) :) :)

Martin Richardson - asshole

I thought such morons on the network were already over! I laughed for a very long time when I received this mail:

PLEASE FORWARD THIS EMAIL TO SOMEONE IN YOUR COMPANY WHO IS ALLOWED TO MAKE IMPORTANT DECISIONS! We have hacked your website(s) and extracted your databases. How did this happen?
Our team has found a vulnerability within your site that we were able to exploit. After finding the vulnerability we were able to get your database credentials and extract your entire database and move the information to an offshore server.
What does this mean?
We will systematically go through a series of steps of totally damaging your reputation. First your database will be leaked or sold to the highest bidder which they will use with whatever their intentions are. Next if there are e-mails found they will be e-mailed that their information has been sold or leaked and your site was at fault thusly damaging your reputation and having angry customers/associates with whatever angry customers/associates do. Lastly any links that you have indexed in the search engines will be de-indexed based off of blackhat techniques that we used in the past to de-index our targets.
How do I stop this?
We are willing to refrain from destroying your site's reputation for a small fee. The current fee is $1200(USD) in bitcoins (BTC). Please send the bitcoin to the following Bitcoin address (Copy and paste as it is case sensitive): 16qNZWAV222ChHfmLYnViNqgCTLtBgozND
Once you have paid we will automatically get informed that it was your payment. Please note that you have to make payment within 5 days after receiving this e-mail or the database leak, e-mails dispatched, and de-index of your site WILL start!
How do I get Bitcoins?
You can easily buy bitcoins via several websites or even offline from a Bitcoin-ATM. We suggest you to start with or or do a google search.
What if I don't pay?
If you decide not to pay, we will start the attack at the indicated date and uphold it until you do, there's no counter measure to this, you will only end up wasting more money trying to find a solution. We will completely destroy your reputation amongst google and your customers. This is not a hoax, do not reply to this email, don't try to reason or negotiate, we will not read any replies. Once you have paid we will stop what we were doing and you will never hear from us again! Please note that Bitcoin is anonymous and no one will find out that you have complied.

Firstly, my site does not have a database, so it cannot be broken. Secondly, I'll probably explain in Russian to Martin who he is and what awaits him in the future:

Порочный дебил с интеллектом обезъяны лучше выглядит рядом с таким безнадежным плодом хера и говна как ты Мартин. Желаю тебе удачно провести остаток твоей никчемной жизни рядом с парашей. И удачи в поисках развлечений на твою тупую жопу!


Arduino Train DUO updated to Protocol 2.5

Arduino Train DUO 6

The new version 2.5 of the Protocol added to the capabilities of the URB project the ability to control four players. Changed managing the 3-Way turnout switch. Added DSS (Double Slip Switch) control with two point motors. Feedback commands aligned with direct protocol commands.

An Orange Book describing the protocol version 2.5 is available on the Docs page. Except for feedback commands, the protocol is fully compatible with the previous version.

New functions are still available in the updated version of the Arduino DUO application. Owners of this app can update to the new version via Google Play. Also the app Arduino Train Tablet will be updated soon. The rest of my apps do not use new features and do not need to be updated.


It's a message that's very close to my heart.

I am very grateful to the modelers who take the time to share their successes with me. This message is wonderful because its author went from getting to know the URB Project to its implementation, and overcame all the difficulties. Big respect Harri!

It doesn't matter how big or complexity your layout. It is important that it gave you pleasure in your efforts and results.

Harri layout

Hi Steve,
Just wanted to drop you a thank-you message for the great work you've done with the URB project!

If there's been anything positive in the COVID situation it's been that this summer we dug out and dusted off my decades old Lima model railway boxes from the basement and did a modest layout on our balcony with my 9 years old son. Soon he asked could we drive more than one train at the time. However, DCC was not really an option as I did not want to convert the pre-DCC era locos etc., which got me thinking about some form of Arduino control for the whole thing – which in turn led to the discovery of the URB project. I'm no stranger to Arduinos nor hobby-grade coding so with the parts already in my project boxes we had in no time the basics up and running with phone control. And my son simply loved it!

I'm sure that I've done every single mistake on the way – I discovered only later that you had described many of them on your web page. I'm using Arduino Mega (as there was unused one in the project box), however the initial setup was really simple and as I'm somewhat familiar with this stuff already it did not take that long to get it going.

Then I started thinking that the points could be controlled with URB as well (some were electric type, others manual). However, rushing through the initial steps I ended up burning not just one but two ULN2003 chips — the point motors were drawing way more than the 0,5 amps that ULN2003 can handle which I realized too late — totally my bad, but luckily the solenoids survived the ULN2003 shorting - twice! Now I use relay boards instead, which works better for me. I even ended up hand-coiling custom solenoid motors that fit into the old manual Lima points' housing – and with a DIY capacitor discharge unit they work beautifully. So the whole layout is now URB controlled!

Finally, I discovered the signaling concept on your YouTube channel, and modified it a bit so that it signals green/red/yellow based on the train A and B drive directions and the point straight/branch state. Now the signaling takes into account not only the train and point directions but also whether you are allowed to go from the outer loop to the inner one etc. It ended up being quite complicated piece of code and custom for this particular layout but working step-by-step it was quite straightforward to do at the end of the day. If the layout was more fixed I'd go for a modular system with multiple URB units for sure, but I'm not sure how the tracks will be laid out the next time so I'll resort to using a single Arduino Mega for now for easier code change management – naturally at the expense of more complicated wiring...

Your project has a wealth of very good ideas and very relevant information, and it's great that for us DC folks there's a professional-grade alternative to DCC. As the weather is now getting colder we've packed the trains back into boxes but I'm already looking forward taking the round two towards the spring, this time adding sensors and automatic train stopping etc — for that I'll need to add more URB units and even consider going wireless.

Sorry for the long message, just wanted to say huge thanks for your initiative and hard work for the URB project and keep up the great work!

With best regards,


DIY rudder pedals are finished! All working fine.

Rudder pedals

In this project, I tried using digital potentiometers. MCP41050 — charming little thing


Special for my dear haters

It's funny to watch the transition of modelers to the DDC fan camp. First, an aspiring modeler makes his first large railway model. This is painstaking work for many months, and, finally, most of the way is behind and ...

It turns out that the control system he's used to just doesn't fit this large layout. And the era of the great marketing of the DCC manufacturers begins. Very quickly, the cost of the control system and its installation reaches $ 2000 or more. And, after that, it turns out that the new, advanced, convenient, reliable DDC is not at all the same as described in the adveriise commercials. The story Mcwilliamses And The Burglar Alarm (1916) by Mark Twain is fully be repeated for just this occasion.

And at this moment an amazing transformation of the modeler's thinking takes place. He understands that he was deceived. He understands that this is a very inconvenient system. But! He'll hate anyone he will remind him about it.

My advice. Do me a favour and visit the doctor, perhaps you have a mental illness. And then try the URB project, it will cure you.


Once again about ESP32

I understand your desire to use the most publicized and modern gadgets. My last video about using DEVKIT ESP32 unintentionally spurred this desire. Therefore, I have to give the following comment.

You can use ANY microcontrollers in your railway layouts using URB project. For example Arduino 33 BLE, ESP32 or powerful (in comparison with Uno and Nano) MEGA, Portenta H7 or even more powerful platform like PIC. But there is one very important problem — all these chips are much more complex and require more in-depth knowledge for programming. If any student, let alone an experienced adult person, can write his first sketch for Arduino NANO (UNO) in a few hours using the editor Arduino IDE. Then for the rest of the chips you need a much higher level of programming.

The Atmega 328P microcontroller is very simple and straightforward. Compare the schemes of Atmega 328P and ESP-32.

Atmega328 vs ESP32

Yes, if you have a high skill of programming, then it is better to use the wireless technologies like ESP-Now, BLE and others. And use cloud computing and MQTT. But, to be honest, this will not improve the railway management system. Therefore, I insist on using simple solutions that each person can program independently. Therefore, the URB project will focus on the use of Arduino NANO. You can read more arguments on old site version here.

The next stage in the development of the project — wireless units will also use Atmega 328 together with the NRF24 radio module. The connection of several modules on the URB block (instead solid multyfunctional gadget), among other advantages, eliminates the need for programming network interfaces and other things, since these modules already have these functions and you do not need the code in the sketch for their operation.

The goal of the project remains the same — a convenient, simple and most understandable tool for creating electronics for your hobby.


Two Hall sensor's module

Sensors for Thrustmaster


DIY rudder pedals for Microsoft Flight Simulator

Rudder pedals for Thrustmaster


Okay, I'm done playing yours games. I'm tired of yours indifference to my project



Real trains traffic on a layout

I am very grateful to Pete for the sent videos with the automatic movement of trains under the control of my URB system.


Small layout

Turntable II


Increase in diameter

Today I will install the new turntable mechanism то the small layout

Modification Layout for Turntable


YouTube problem

Videos on the site have stopped playing. And the same thing happens with all embedded videos on other sites. It is not clear whether this is a temporary YouTube error, or whether in this way YouTube decided to motivate site owners to abandon the video embedding function.

All these videos can be played without problems only on the YouTube website itself.

YouTube errors


Turntable II design completed

I have been designing a universal locos turntable six months. Five unsuccessful attempts with different types of rotating mechanisms. Three motor options. And every attempt ended in failure. I was already desperate. It was only thanks to the support of Erik and Alain that I continued with the design.

120 sketches options and two months behind this screenshot. And so I present you a simple screen shot from Arduino IDE. And that means the new design is working!!!

New turntable counter algorithm


First external WRU

My compliments to Alain who made his own copies of the wireless units... Vive la France!

WRU from Alain


Wireless Railway Unit documentation

WRU docs


Next step of URB Project — Wireless Railway Unit

Soon new hardware and new features.

Track-plan for Wireless Railway Unit


Wagon unloader

I received a message from the winner of the 2020 contest:

Good afternoon Steve. These wagon unloader. Where they could be in URB and what would be the button in the APP.

Greetings – Francisco Rodriguez

Wagon unloader track-plan

Ok! Since the purpose of the buttons in my applications is determined by the user in the COMM sketch, I offer one of the many options for connecting and controlling these mechanisms. There are 6 decouplers in the picture, that is, the task is to manage each of them individually.

The Protocol has a command for managing functions — fa0z (fb0z) and fa1z (fb1z) (Custom button). This button is located in the train control interface in the application, unlike the lighting control buttons and layout elements. Since the control of the decouplers is associated with the movement of the train (and the controls of the locomotive), it is logical to assign this button. The next question is that there are six decouplers, and, accordingly, you need to choose only one at the moment.

In the track-plan, three decouplers refer to Driver A and three to Driver B. Then the GEARS buttons in the application will be responsible for selecting a specific decoupler, and the CUSTOM button will activate it for a few seconds. The control of the electromagnet of the decoupler is in no way different from the control of the point-motor of the turnout switch, but it only has one channel. That is, it is even simpler, it is enough to take the Auto OFF algorithm from the snippet and the sketch for the local URB unit is ready.

In the COMM sketch, it is enough to make a choice according to the GEAR buttons, and then send the command for activate decoupler to local unit already programmed earlier. That's all, nothing complicated.


Turntable II

New stepper motor NEMA mounted on turntable.

Stepper NEMA 17 Turntable


Successful stepper motor test

I wrote a sketch to control this motor through the A4988 motor driver. The basic idea is to use step 1/16 and rotation control without using the Arduino libraries. You can download the sketch from the link.

Stepper NEMA 17 snf URB unit


New design. New content.

New version of site are released.


Need your opinion

I am making a new version of the site with an extended description and examples. Today I finished a new example for a signal system. It will be very interesting for me to read your opinion about this. Write me about it to


My plans

I made some mistakes introducing my project. Despite the fact that on my site and in my videos I repeated a phrase about the use of ANY microcontrollers, modelers stubbornly considered the need to use the URB unit as the main obstacle to using the project. I also counted on the independent programming of the project participants of their layouts. What also turned out to be a mistake, people do not want to program and they insist on ready-made examples.

I'm tired of trying to explain this situation, and I will redo my site into simple ready-made solutions. For advanced users who are able to independently program information "how do" will only be in the URB Club.

I received a new motor with a gearbox from China, and, unfortunately, it turned out that its characteristics (inertia when stopping, backlash of the output shaft, errors of position sensors and a small range of speed control) do not allow its use it for the turntable. I am very upset about this, but the turntable design will be completed using a CNC stepper motor. To do this, I need to learn using my 1310 machine to produce gears, which I will do.


For big layouts with Interlocking

Arduino MEGA and URB units

Previous posts